Much of the CANBUS runs 3.3 to 5V - these don't need large gauge wires.Well after more interweb searching, it looks like the green connector block is indeed canbus, specifically the front Can-C bus star connector. I still haven't determined if the NHP connector is supposed to be connected or not. I found a pic of the connector disconnected but no corresponding description.
I'm amazed the green connector block is mounted to the back of the glovebox making it susceptible to shocks when shutting the glovebox door. The wires and connectors are flimsy and of small gauge. I'll be focusing my troubleshooting on that connector this weekend. It's currently hanging down in the footwell which may be forcing leverage on the suspect connector and ensuring a good connection, which would explain why it hasn't happened again since I removed the glovebox.
It's incredible an issue such as one loose wire or connector can cause multiple system failures while driving, not to mention the lack of engineered-in fail safes when failures occur.